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Making a Recipe from Formula Using the Manual Mode
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Using the MANUAL mode in the Make Recipe process.

The Manual mode does not restrict the materials databases used.

While the Auto and Preselect modes use only the Auto Materials database and the Local Materials database respectively, in Manual mode you can access any of the material databases in the Raw Materials folder.

The Manual mode gives you the greatest flexibility in selection of materials for the new recipe but with this freedom comes the danger of creating overloads.

When overloads occur during the process Matrix displays warning windows and you have the opportunity to back-track or continue accepting the overloads which might not have great significance.

Using the Manual Mode to Create a New Recipe

To start the Manual process click the Manual button.

Fig.1 shows a formula loaded ready to commence the process of creating a new recipe.

The Order in which Oxides are Filled

In the Manual Mode radio buttons are provided next to each oxide which allows you to decide which of the oxides you will fill first and what the subsequent order will be. While this freedom places considerable demands on you understanding of the process it also gives you the flexibility to try filling oxides with unusual materials.

Fig.1 Making a recipe using the Manual Mode

The default order of fill is from oxides normally satisfied with complex materials (containing many oxides) to those which can usually be satisfied with materials containing few oxides.

If a formula had a value for every oxide in the list then the Matrix fill order would be as follows:


If any of these oxides are missing in the formula being processed then Matrix will move on to the next.


Showing the Original Recipe

If you are modifying an original recipe, say to replace one material for another, it is always advisable to change as few materials as possible in the new recipe. By clicking on the Show Original button you can display the original recipe in a small window for reference.

Selecting Materials for the New Recipe

The indicates the oxide which Matrix recommends you fill next. Fig.2 shows the Material Selection window opened by clicking the KNO radio button.

The Material Selection list contains a selection of materials all of which have KNO (K2O,Na2O) in their analysis. Those materials which would be considered as prime sources of the oxide being filled (in this case KNO) head the list and are marked with an ' * ' in front of their names. Unless you have a specific reason for choosing a non-primary source material you should select one of the materials marked with an asterisk. This will lessen the chances of overloading one of the other oxides in the formula.

You may wish to consider the analysis of different materials in the list before making a choice. If you click the Display Mat. Formula button a new panel open displaying the formula for any highlighted material in the list. Use the mouse (single click) or the up-down arrows on your keyboard to view formula for materials in the list.

In our example we will double click the Australian Potash Feldspar to fill the KNO. (Fig.2)

Fig.2 Making the first material selection to fill the KNO

Fig.3 Making the second material selection to fill the Al2O3

When Australian Potash Feldspar was chosen for the first selection to fill the KNO it brought in some Al2O3 and some SiO2 but not enough to satisfy the requirements of the formula.

The now moves to the Al2O3 radio button inviting you to select a material to fill the Al2O3. In the Manual mode you could ignore this and click any of the other buttons present for oxides yet to be filled. However moving outside the default fill order will increase the chances of creating an overload.

If you are not happy with the selection you have made you may click the Remove Last button. In our example this would remove the Australian Potash Feldspar and the would move back to the KNO button. All calculations would also be reversed.

We will now click the Al2O3 button and select Kentucky Ball Clay for our material to fill this oxide. Fig.4 shows the result of this action.

Fig.4 Ready to Making the third material selection to fill the CaO

Matrix now suggests we make a material selection to fill the CaO in the formula.

Click the CaO button to open the Materials selection window.

In this next selection we will make an ERROR by selecting a material which will result in an overload.

From the materials list we will select Dolomite.

Had we looked at the formula for Dolomite we might have noticed that the material has MgO in its analysis and out formula does not require any MgO.

As a result Matrix detects that an overload has occured and displays a warning window with details.
See Fig.5


All three materials chosen so far have brought in some SiO2 but all together not enough to satisfy the full requirements of the formula. (Fig.4) Matrix detects the need for still more SiO2 and offers the only material available to supply this without bringing any other oxides with it. Double click on the Silica material to finally fill all of the formula. (Fig.5)

Fig.5 An Overload Alert After Choosing Dolomite to fill the CaO.

Sometimes an overload is so small in degree that you would not notice any significant difference in the fired glaze. If you are happy to live with an overload then click the Ignore Overload button in the Oxide Overload window and Matrix will move on to the next oxide to fill. Often an overload occurs for TiO2 which is insignificant and can be ignored.

In our example though the overload is definitly significant so we must choose to Remove Dolomite Matrix now steps back with the calculation and invites us to find another material to fill CaO so click the CaO button and choose another material.

When you have completed the selection of materials and clicked the Accept New button you can add colourants and save the recipe or send it to the Recipe to Formula environment.

Using the Split Fill Function in the Materials Selection Window

When filling an oxide in the Manual Make Recipe Mode you may sometimes want to share the input of a particular oxide between two or more materials. An example of this would be where the selection of say a feldspar to fill KNO would bring in too much Al2O3 and SiO2 - the glaze may be a low temperature glaze.

The Split Fill function allows you to share a fill between two materials. In the next example I have increased the level of KNO from 0.2 to 0.3 and lowered the Al2O3 and SiO2 mol parts in the Cone 10 Glaze formula to levels more appropriate for C.6.

Fig.6 showed what happened when I tried to fill the new KNO level with Australian Potash Feldspar.

Fig.6 An Overload Alert After Choosing Australian Potash Feldspar.

With the level of KNO at 0.3 the amount of Al2O3 and SiO2 brought in when the KNO was filled with Australian Potash Feldspar increased so much that the levels were too high for the formula requirements and an overload occured.

We could look for a Feldspar with less Al2O3 and SiO2 or we could use a high alkalai frit or a soluble materials such as Soda Ash.

Some of these options are not desireable so one strategy would be to share the KNO fill between a felspar and one of the less desirable materials.

We will try a combination of Australian Potash Feldspar and Ferro Frit 4110 and accept the samll amount of B2O3 that the Frro Frit will bring with it.


Click on the OK button in the Oxide Overload window to remove the Australian Potash Feldspar from the recipe so far.

Now click on the KNO button again to bring up the Materials Selection window.

Fig.7 Using the Split Fill function to partly fill the KNO with Australian Potash Feldspar.

At this point we will need to adopt a trial and error approach in order to find a balance of Australian Potash Feldspar and Ferro Frit 4110 which would allow us to still get some clay into the recipe (Al2O3 left to fill) and which uses the minimum amount ot frit (to keep the B2O3 and the cost down). Click on the Split % text box type in 40 then click the Use button.

Fig.8 Selecting Ferro Fritt 4110 to complete the fill for KNO

We want to try completing the KNO fill with Ferro Frit 4110 so we will leave 100 in the Split % text box, click on the Ferro Frit 4110 then click the Use button.

Fig.9 The frit creates an overload which we ignore.

As we expected using Ferro Fritt 4110 for the second material has produced an overload alert due to the B2O3 content of the frit.

The level is small so we will go with the overload and click the Ignore Overload button.

We could step back and reduce the frit content which would reduce the level of B2O3 but by accepting the B2O3 we can get a significant amount of clay in the recipe which will have its advantages in glaze application and handling.

Fig.10 The recipe creation is completed.

We now proceed to complete making the recipe which is shown in Fig.10.


Follow these links for more information about:


Formula to Recipe
Overview | Loading Recipe's from Disc | Entering a New Formula | Changing a Displayed Formula | Making a New Recipe from a Formula | Auto Mode | Preselect Mode | Manual Mode | Using the Split Fill Function Mode | Using the Graph in the Formula Management window